How to Grow Watercress

The main differences are the two types of kale on leaf shape and color of flowers. Ground water spinach (Ipomoea reptans) bright green leaves with pointed ends. Kale flower color white ground.

Meanwhile, water spinach (Ipomoea Aquatica) rather dark green leaves with a rounded tip or blunt so look wider. Flower color purple kale tends water. In addition to physical differences, habitual ways of harvesting these two different types of kale. Kale crop land in a manner revoked, while the water is harvested kale dengnan cut way.

Preparation of seed

To get a good crop, of course, should be a good seed selection anyway. There are a number of improved seed varieties of kale are famous like Silk and Bangkok. Silk seed is the seed of a kale Hawaiian introduced by the Ministry of Agriculture in the 1980s. However, the widely circulated today is the output kale Bisi and Red Arrows and kale origin as Sidoarjo in East Java. Rather difficult to trace kale varieties in the market.

Good ground kale seed is seed viability of more than 95 percent and growing upright at least until the age of 8 weeks. Because kale growing land spreading is not so attractive market. Try not to use seeds that have been stored for more than one year. Because productivity will decline.

watercress

Cultivation and fertilization basic

In the cultivation of land kale hoeing the soil should be treated with so loose and make the beds with a width of 1 meter and adjust the length of the plot. The distance between beds 30-40 cm, its function as drainage and roads for maintenance and harvesting.

For the cultivation of organic kale, prepare a basic fertilizer from organic fertilizer, manure can use mature or compost. Manure is more practical because it does not have to prepare intensively, quite pin it to dry before use. While the preparation of compost is relatively longer.

When using manure, better choose chicken manure than goat or cow dung. Because the chicken manure decomposes faster, so it fits with the cyclical harvest kale plants quickly. Sprinkle the fertilizer over the beds, approximately 10 tonnes per hectare. Then let stand for 2-3 days.

Cultivation

Planting on the cultivation of land kale can be stocked directly or ditugal. Meanwhile, how planted and then moved not very economical for the cultivation of land kale. How to stocked directly done by sowing seeds on the beds. This method is fast and suitable performed in the lack of people or expensive labor costs.

The weakness of this method is wasteful in the use of seeds, because they can spend 5-10 pounds of seed per acre. This method requires skilled workers for the results stocking evenly. It's just hard to get an ideal plant population density. Where the density is ideal for kale plants 50,000 trees per hectare.

The second way is, with ditugal. Good in this way we can arrange a spacing that can be obtained ideal plant population density. The distance between drill holes is 10 x 5 cm, every hole filled with 2-3 seeds. Only in this way takes more labor because of his work will be longer. Making the planting hole should not be too deep, because the cultivation of land does not require rooting kale is too strong.

Maintenance and advanced fertilization

In the cultivation of land is not required kale intensive fertilizer. Kale land is resistant crops on soil fertility conditions are. Actually, the initial fertilization is enough to provide nutrients to the plants until they are ready to harvest. But it really depends on the condition of soil fertility respectively. Former land previously cultivated legume plants are relatively not require additional fertilizer enough with basic organic fertilizer that has been given at the beginning.

Only if the plant looks less fertile marked with green color faded need additional fertilizer. Kale ground is very responsive to nitrogen. If necessary can be given organic fertilizer rich in nitrogen such as chicken manure mature compost mixed with chaff or nitrogen rich.

Subsequent maintenance that must be considered is watering. Kale land requires a lot of water to grow. However, if rainfall is too high, the leaves are produced will be ugly. In the dry season need regular watering, every morning and afternoon. If the plants look withered and yellow in daylight, do also watering with enough intensity. The lack of intensity scorching daytime watering can make the plants die.

The next thing is weeding, although spinach is a plant faster cycle times when the young plants can not compete with the grass. Especially when the initial stocking, growth of seeds into plants relatively little long so the potential is quite high weeds overtaken. If there is something like this, the weeds must be quickly removed with revoked.

Pests that attack kale include grasshoppers, armyworm (Spodotera litura) and aphids from (Myzus persicae and Aphyds types gossypii). Armyworm attack symptoms are leaf perforated, perforated and serrated periphery dau bites. While aphids make plants stunted and warped dau. Because aphids absorb fluids from plants.

While the disease is a disease that usually attacks the white rust (Albigo Ipomoeae Panduratae). When this disease will appear white spots on the leaves then be expanded. In organic farming land kale, pest management should be integrated. To reduce the risk of pests and diseases, crop rotation is necessary, adjust the spacing of and conduct proper watering. Or if forced to use biological pesticides like neem leaves, yam, and lemongrass.

Harvest and marketing

Kale cultivation land of the early spread to harvest takes 30-45 days. Harvesting can be done in two ways cut and removed. Especially for organic kale, harvesting should be done with revoked. Because organic kale market tastes, the modern markets, preferring complete kale plants with roots. Harvesting by way revoked will produce kale plants as much as 23 tons per hectare.

Before in containers and shipped to market, should kale are deprived of land cleared first. Washing is done by running water or clean water to avoid harmful contaminants. Place the spinach in a humid and do not stung direct sunlight.

How To Grow Radish

Radish is a plant that goes to the family Cruciferae. Turnip bulb shape like carrots, but the content and white skin. Radish plants originated from China, and has been widely cultivated in Indonesia. Plants are easy to grow both in the lowlands and mountains.

Currently many areas are planted radishes plateau Pangalengan, Pacet, Cipanas, and Bedugul. The area of turnip plants in Indonesia are now about 15,700 hectares.

Good soil to plant radishes are loose soil, containing humus (fertile), the top layer of soil that does not contain gravel (small stones), and the degree of soil acidity 5-6. Ideal planting time is during the rainy season or the beginning of the dry season. For planting in the dry season, the plant should be enough water.

Cultivation

Seeing the benefits and its potential as a source of income, it is time for someone motivated to start a business radish vegetables. Although radishes are from China, does not mean it is grown in Indonesia will find a lot of problems with soil conditions here, even the condition of the soil and the plains in Indonesia is very possible. Start a radish cultivation can begin lobaknya seed extract, and the land necessary to cultivate radish is soil loose soil and gravel on the top surface; would be great if the soil has a humus or fertile.

radish

Nurseries

As mentioned earlier, radish seedlings can be obtained through direct seed because these plants produce seeds, and therefore you should not hard coded and issued a small cost to import the seed directly from China. The other thing is the seed or seeds can be planted directly without any prior seeding process. To measure its use, 1 hectare requires 5 kg of radish seedlings.

Land Management

Before the radish seedlings planted, not just any land used DAPT. There is a "specification" that must be met by cultivating the soil first. Soil treatment process can use a hoe to mechanized agriculture tools such as tractors. Once the land has been average, manure is what to do next. When all the preparations are in the process of land is complete, set the spacing of the calculation 10 x 20 cm with a groove with a distance of 30 cm between one and the other groove.

Planting and Care

Planting is done by sowing seeds of radish seeds thinly and evenly along the grooves that have been made previously. Having sown into the soil, cover the seeds of radish was on the ground, but do not be too in or thick; thin enough alone. Hose 4 days, the seeds will grow. Entering the age of 2 to 3 weeks, the plants are ready to be weeded and start made mounds along the row of plants. To make the mounds, elevate the ground surface along the row of plants. Activity dilute plants can also be done, namely by removing plants that are less fertile and let fertile plants. Provision of artificial fertilizers is also needed for plant radishes thrive. Provision of urea and TSP in the ratio 1: 2 with number 6 grams for each tanamanpupuk sown on the right and left the plant at a distance of 5 cm from the plant.

Pest extermination

In addition to interference from weeds or vegetation such as grass, pests can interfere with the growth and yield of rapeseed cultivation process. To repel aphids disturbing, granting EC insecticide as much as 2.5% can be potent eliminate this pest infestation. Keep in mind, hasi healthy radish harvest can weigh half to two pounds per harvested radishes.

How to Grow Carrots

Carrot is a biennial plant or lifecycle 12-24 months that stores large amounts of carbohydrates to grow flowering in the second year. Flower stem can grow as high as about 1 m, with white flowers.

Carrot is a plant that can only be grown in the highlands. This plant requires growing environment with cool temperatures and humid. For growth and tuber production needed optimum air temperature between 15.6 to 21.1 degrees C. The air temperature is too high or heat often causes tubers are small and pale / dull. when the air temperature is too low, then the tubers are formed into small length.

Aquaculture Technical Guidelines and How to Grow Carrots Carrots

carrot

Nurseries

Carrots propagated by generative with seeds. This carrot seeds or seeds can be purchased in stores nearby agricultural production means, but it could also conceive themselves, especially species / varieties of local and non-hybrid carrot.
For seeding local carrots can follow the following steps;
  1. Choose a carrot plant is quite old age ± 3 months, thrives and also healthy. pull the carrot crop earlier choice, then observe its bulbs, tubers carrots make the tree good and healthy broodstock, tuber shape normal, not disabled, shiny skin color yellow / orange and smooth.
  2. Cut the ends of carrots maximum tuber third part, also trim along the leaf petiole, leaving 10 cm which is attached to the bulb.
  3. Prepare the soil for plant breeding carrot in the form of beds-perfect seedbed processed manure optimally.
  4. Make the planting hole with tools hoe with a spacing of 40-60 cm x 40-60 cm.
  5. Plant the bulb planting medium carrots in a hole that has been created, and pressing the soil too slowly to cover the neck of the stem.
  6. Make shallow grooves along the row of plants carrots ± 5 cm from the stem.
  7. Perform artificial fertilizer application in the form of a mixture ZA + SP + KCl (1: 2: 2) as much as 10 g / plant seeds, fertilizer and then is covered with a thin soil.
  8. Maintain carrot seeds for ± 3 months, to produce fruit stalks and seeds in large quantities.
  9. Pluck the strings skillfully stalk carrots old or dry, then dry in the sun to dry for its nut.

 Seed Seeding Technique

Carrot seed sown directly in the planting medium, can jugga evenly distributed in each of beds or with dicicir elongated in a row. The distance between rows of at least 15 cm, then if it is grown can be done so that the thinning of carrot plants were spaced 3-5 cm from each other. The need seeds or seedlings per acre between 150-200 grams her. For carrot seeds will usually begin to germinate after 8-12 days old.

Media Processing Plant

At first the ground dug as deep as approximately 40 cm, and the manure or compost as much as 15 tons per hectare. Subsequently made beds-beds width 100-150 cm, height 30-40 cm, the distance between beds 50-60 cm and length depending on the state of the land.

How to Grow Carrots

The procedure for planting carrot seeds through the following stages:
  1. Spread (sprinkle) carrot seeds evenly in grooves / kerf-kerf available.
  2. Close the carrot seeds with a thin soil as deep as 0.5-1 cm.
  3. Create shallow grooves 5cm from a seed row direction (longitudinal) to lay the basic fertilizer. Type of fertilizer applied is a mixture of TSP ± 400 kg (± 200 kg P2 O5 / ha) with KCl 150 kg (± 75 kg K2O / ha).
  4. Spread the fertilizer evenly, then cover with a thin soil.
  5. Close each kerf (groove) with dry leaves or stem of banana leaves for 7-10 days to prevent runoff of carrot seeds by sprinkling (pouring) of water and serves to maintain the stability of soil moisture. Having grown carrot seeds in the ground, cover was soon in the open again.

Plant maintenance

Do thinning of carrot plants with one another. This is done at the time the plant was 1 month after planting. The goal is to obtain a fast growing plant carrots and fertile, so expect a satisfactory yield. Perform a purge of Weeds or weeds that grow around the plant. The weeds growing in the trenches also cleaned so as not to be pests and diseases. The soil around the plant rows of carrots digemburkan, then goto ditimbunkan stem tuber carrots that later covered by soil.

Harvest

The characteristics of the carrot crop can be harvested already are as follows:
  1. Plant carrots that have been aged ± 3 months since the scatter seeds or depending on varieties. Ideal varieties harvested at the age of 100 to 120 days after planting.
  2. The size of the bulb has a maximum and not too old. Harvest is too old or too late harvest can cause the bulbs to be loud and berkatu, so the quality of carrot becomes low or no market behavior. Likewise to harvest too early will only produce small-sized tubers, so the carrot production to be down.

How to harvest carrots for this relatively easy, by removing all the plants along the tuber crops. Plants are good and intensively reared bulbs can produce between 20-30 tonnes / hectare.

How to grow Papaya

Papaya (Carica papaya) is a tropical fruit. This plant is believed to come from tropical regions of the Americas. From this place spread to various parts of the world.

Papaya cultivation can be done in the lowlands up to an altitude of 1000 meters above sea level. However, optimal land elevation range 50-700 meters above sea level. This plant requires about 1000-2000 mm rainfall per year are evenly throughout the year. In the area of seasonal dried papaya tree can still be fruitful with the help of regular watering.

Selection of papaya seeds

Seeds for cultivation of papaya obtained from selected seeds. To get as many perfect papaya trees required accuracy and skill in selecting candidates for seed.

Good seed obtained from papaya fruit produced perfect tree. Elongated fruit shape, no defects and free from disease. The fruit as much as possible left to ripen on the tree.

Papaya seeds contained in the fruit cavity, there are black and white pale dark there. White seeds are seeds that death will not grow. Black seeds that can grow into a tree, but only about 25-50% being perfect tree depending on the nature of genetics.

The rest becomes a tree female and male trees.
Seeds that grow at the end of the fruit has the possibility to grow into a perfect papaya tree compared to the base. To select seed should take the seeds at the end to the middle of the fruit. Do not take the seeds from the fruit base.

papaya

Sowing the seeds of papaya

Before seeded, dry seeds still need to germinate first. It is useful to shorten the time of papaya cultivation. First soak the seeds in warm water for one night. Then select the seeds sink or float in water.

Prepare tissue paper for packaging, wet wipes with water. Sprinkle seeds soaked on paper towels then cover it with a tissue and flush or wet. Enter the seed package in baskets (woven bamboo box) or other similar container. Place the container must be impermeable to water or drain water.

Put the container in the sun, not too hot, seed germination requires a temperature of about 30 degrees Celsius. The seeds will germinate after 7-10 days, or could be.

Once the seeds germinate into seedlings, seedling-sprouts move is in the polybag nursery, the seed of the polybag. Choose a small polybag with size 9 × 10 cm. Previously, the contents of the polybag nursery media consisting of soil, compost, rice husk which has been sifted with a ratio of 1: 1: 1. See how to create a media hotbed.

Once the seedlings are transferred wet the media to keep the humidity. Then place the poly-poly bags in a shaded nursery chamber. Shade can be made of clear plastic or paranet. Its function is to protect the seedlings from the disbursement of direct rain, sun and wind.

Seedlings ready to be moved to land openly after the age of 2-2.5 months since planted. Papaya seed requirement for one hectare of about 60 grams.

Tillage and planting

Here is a land management for papaya cultivation in dry land or a stretch of non terracing. First, dug or plowed land to loosen the soil. Then create a raised bed with a width of 2 meters, the length adjusting landforms and 20-30 cm high. The distance between beds width 50 cm. Spacing should be adapted to the cultivation of papaya acreage. The following provisions:
  • Papaya cultivation <0.2 ha planted distance 2 × 2 meters
  • Papaya cultivation 1-5 ha planted distance 2 × 2.5 meters
  • Cultivation of papaya> 1 ha planting distance of 3 × 3 meters

Make the planting hole in accordance with spacing, size 50x50x40 cm planting hole. We recommend making holes for planting is not in the rainy season. When digging the planting hole, remove the top soil with soil at the bottom. Leave the hole open for 1-2 weeks.

Then mix the basic fertilizer in the form of compost or manure that has been cooked with topsoil. Dose of 20 kg of fertilizer per planting hole. Then enter the first ground into the bottom of the planting hole, then enter the upper soil. Let re planting hole is closed for 1-2 weeks.

For the record, to soil that has a pH below 5 neutralize with lime or dolomite. Lime doses of 1-2 tons per hectare or 1 kg per planting hole. Giving dolomite at least 2 weeks prior to planting.

After the planting hole is ready, remove the seeds from the polybag nursery to the planting hole. Seedlings are ready to be moved a minimum of 2-2.5 months after sowing. Do watering in the morning or late afternoon until at least 1.5 months old plants were transferred.

There are two habits of farmers in the cultivation of papaya, which is planting a seed in the planting hole or two seeds per hole seedling. The purpose of planting two papaya seeds to avoid the growth of male and female as well as facilitate stitching.

In the 4th, when the first flowering papaya, papaya be selected to revoke unwanted. In the end only one perfect papaya per planting hole that is allowed to grow to fruition.

Papaya cultivation treatments

Stitching plants do after the plant was 1.5 months after planting. Plants that grow ugly or diseased repealed and replaced new seedlings. When using two seeds in the planting hole, simply unplug the plants that look good.

Here are tips that are given to Prof. Sobir of Tropical Fruit Research Center, Bogor Agricultural University, to selecting the perfect papaya plants.
Observe when flowering tree for the first time. Flowers grow in axillary panicles. If a single flower growing, means perfect female flowers or flower. This flower out at the age of 4 months. When a group or in a series of mean male, trees should be removed and embroidered with other seeds.

Pick flowers and press edges with thumb up open, when the male flowers out means this tree is perfect tree to be retained. Perfect flower will appear 1-2 months later.
If after pressed out female flowers, means this tree female tree. Means should be repealed.

Then the plants were removed embroidered with new seedlings. Or, if we apply the method of planting two trees in the planting hole, move the perfect tree from another hole. Due to the hole can only be raised one perfect tree.

Fertilization aftershocks started 2 weeks after the seedlings are transferred. Fertilization is given by digging a trench encircling the papaya plant. Trench depth of approximately 5-10 cm, fertilizer mixture is placed in the trench. The following provisions papaya cultivation fertilization:
  • The first fertilization, the age of 2 weeks, Urea 30 gr, 40 gr SP-36, ZA 40 g and 20 g per tree KCl
  • Fertilization second, the age of 1 month, Urea 40 gr, 70 gr SP-36, ZA 70 g and 30 g per tree KCl
  • Third Fertilization, age 4 months, Urea 45 gr, 80 gr SP-36, ZA 80 grams and 60 grams of KCl per tree
  • Fertilization fourth, aged 6 months, Urea 50 gr, 90 gr SP-36, ZA 90 g and 70 g per tree KCl
  • Fertilization subsequently every single month, Urea 60 g, SP-36 100 g, 100 g and KCl ZA 75 g per tree

Harvesting

Papaya cultivation can usually be harvested after 9-14 months old. The frequency of the harvest can be done every 10 days. Papaya cultivation productivity ranged between 20-35 tons per hectare. Productivity depends on climatic conditions, varieties and cultivation techniques.

Papaya fruit plucked should approach the mature stage of the tree. Characteristics are yellow lines on the skin of the fruit. When the harvest will be sold to distant places, can be picked early.

How to Grow Peppers

Paprika is similar vegetables with chilli, but the peppers do not have a spicy taste like chili. So far peppers is still regarded as one of the vegetable consumption for the middle and upper. This is because the use of paprika is still quite limited in some European-style dishes, such as pizza, spaghetti, salad, and others. However, with the rapidly growing popularity of European-style foods in Indonesia society today makes peppers growing demand.

Ideal land for cultivation Paprika

Land ideal for growing peppers is in upland areas that have low air humidity levels. Cold temperatures between 15 degrees to 25 degrees Celsius is known is ideal for developing this subtropical plants. It is actually intended to avoid pest and disease attacks the pepper tree, because the intensity of pests and diseases will be increasing if the pepper plants grown in the lowlands with high temperatures. The location at an altitude of about 750 meters above sea level is believed to be a very fitting.

peppers

Land preparation

After finding land in the right location, then it is time we start working on the land in order to be ready for planting. If it is feared will happen rain, it is highly recommended planting peppers plants using hydroponics green house and a system that yields maximum. Cultivation techniques like this are known to be efficient because the trunk and the fruits are very sensitive to nature, so that when they are exposed to rain water will easily rot.

Making green house is required greater cost when compared to cultivate land land directly, but if it yields to the maximum then the profits will increase as well. Making green house can you try with minimal funds that use ultra violet plastic material. Furthermore, the media used to grow namely husk.

How to Grow Peppers on Top Charcoal Husk

How to grow this plant is divided into several stages. The first is to grow the seeds in a tray so that the germination. Usually seeds will grow into sprouts without leaves within one week, then we put them into a small polybag polybag-up to grow the leaves, at least two or three strands. This process will usually take for approximately two weeks.

Then we can move the plant peppers into the actual container, namely poly-sized big polybag approximately 30 cm x 35 cm. The important thing to note about this planting method is that we must be very careful when moving the seeds of the peppers so that the leaves and roots are not damaged. Furthermore, we also need to maintain good plant peppers.

Maintenance process

In order to flourish, paprika plants need to be watered with water and fertilizer on a regular basis. Fertilizer used is dilute liquid fertilizer or manure. Furthermore, after the flowering plants, we need to select by eliminating some of the flowers that grow up to leave one's best interest in every single tree peppers. Once the fruits are old enough then we can harvest.

How to Grow Eggplant

Eggplant (Solanum melongena) is a type of annual seasonal vegetables. Besides India, Indonesia is believed to be the origin of eggplant. These plants are often found growing wild in our forests. However, the current widespread eggplant is grown in various parts of the earth.

There are many varieties of eggplant grown in Indonesia, ranging from local eggplant Wren like eggplant, eggplant kopek, Bogor eggplant, eggplant eggplant field to import as Japanese eggplant. The shape and color of eggplant fruit there are quite a variety of white, green to purple. The form was some round, oval large, up to oval with a pointed tip.

Soil conditions are ideal for the cultivation of eggplant is sandy loam soil with a pH range of 6.5-7. Eggplant yet fully operational in the temperature range 22-30oC. These plants require adequate sunlight, therefore suitable to be planted in the dry season.

Eggplant is one family with chillies, tomatoes and potatoes. Pests and diseases that attack these plants can also interfere with the cultivation of eggplant. Therefore, in the crop rotation, try not to these plants.

eggplant

Seeding eggplant

Good seed for cultivation of eggplant have the ability to grow at over 75%. With such seed, seed requirements for one hectare reach 300-500 grams. Before planting in open fields, eggplant seeds should be sown in advance.

The first step is to prepare first place seeding. Make beds with a width of one meter and a height of 20 cm. The pile is made from a mixture of soil, rice husk and compost in the ratio 1: 1: 1. Alternatively, please read how to create a media hotbed. Then give shade to the beds.

Soak eggplant seeds in warm water for 10-15 minutes, then cover the seed with a damp cloth and let stand for 24 hours. Create a groove within 5-10 cm above the seedbed for sowing seed.

Then scatter the seeds and cover with a thin layer of soil. After that, cover the beds with banana leaves or wet burlap sacks. Flush with water to keep the seedbed moisture.

After 2-3 days the sprouts begin to grow into a plant, or banana leaves open the burlap sack. Then flush the plant every day. After 10-15 days, move the plant seeds into bumbunan banana leaves or small polybag (9X10 cm), one polybag one plant.

Fill bumbunan polybag or banana leaf with soil and compost, a ratio of 1: 1. Please read how to make a planting medium polybag.

Water the plants present in the poly bag every day. After 1-1.5 months old plants or have had at least 4 leaves, the plant is ready to be moved into the open field.

Tillage and planting

The land for the cultivation of eggplant dug or plowed to a depth of 30 cm. Clean soil of weeds and gravel. Form of beds with a width of 1 meter height of 30 cm and a length adapted to the shape of the land. The distance between beds of 40 cm.

Use organic fertilizer as basal fertilizer, can be compost or manure as much as 15 tons per hectare. Sprinkle over the beds and mix well. Eggplant cultivation requires soil acidity level of about pH 5-6. If the pH is less than 5 add agricultural lime or dolomite of 1-2 tons per hectare one week before planting.

Make the planting hole is lined up, one as much as two rows of beds. Spacing between the planting hole 60 cm and the distance between rows 70 cm. Hole width and depth adjustable to the size polybag seedlings.

Before the seedlings are transferred, flush with water beds. Eggplant plants tend not stand the drought. Move the plant seeds one hole filled the seed crop. Be careful in moving the plants, keeping the roots are not broken or damaged tanamah.

Eggplant cultivation treatments

Do replanting crops after one week. Unplug the plants that look wilted or unhealthy and abnormal growth. Revocation is done along with the growth media. Replace with new seedlings.

Additional fertilization is done starting from 2 weeks after the seeds are planted. For the cultivation of non-organic eggplant provide urea at a dose of 80 kg / ha and KCl 45 kg / ha. As for the cultivation of organic eggplant provide compost or manure, each one lump or approximately 0.5 kg per plant.

Repeat administration of supplementary fertilizer in week 5 and 7th after the seeds are planted. While providing supplementary fertilizer, weed siangi contained in the plant beds. Clean the shrubs that are around the area of the plant.

Marker installation or bamboo slats to support the plant is done after 3 weeks old plants. Embedding marker should be within 5-7 cm from the base of the stem. Do not get hurt marker embedding plant roots. Tie the plant at stake with raffia.

If it does not rain watering should be done every three days until flowering plants. After flowering plants, increase the frequency to every other day.

Harvest eggplant cultivation

The first harvest eggplant cultivation is usually carried out after 70-80 days from seed is planted. Furthermore, harvesting is done every 3-7 days. In a single growing season, harvest bia reach 13-15 times, or even more.

The right time to harvest is early morning and late afternoon. Fruit picked with stalks, eggplant fruit is not durable. Therefore, it should be marketed immediately after harvest. Sorting for the cultivation of eggplant is done based on the size and color of the fruit.

How to Grow Melons

Melon (Cucumis melo) is included in the rate cucumber. Still a relative with watermelon, cantaloupe and cucumber. As with other tribes cucumbers, melons grow vines but could not climb. If not supported, this plant will grow spread over the surface of the ground.

The place is ideal for the cultivation of melons in the range of 250-700 meters above sea level altitude. If the height is less than 250 meters, melon plants tend to produce smaller fruit. While in the highlands with temperatures below 18oC, this plant is difficult to develop.

Melon plants require air humidity level of 50-70%. The average temperature suitable for the cultivation of melon range 25-30oC with rainfall 1500-2500 mm / year. Melon fruit quality will be even better if there is a day and night temperature difference is quite significant.

Type melon

Type of melon is very diverse. However, only three popular cultivars cultivated, namely reticalatus, inodorus and cantalupensis.

Reticalatus. This is a type of melon most popular cultivars. The shape is rounded with a green rind and texture berjala, such as coated webs. Fruit flesh colored light green to orange.

Inodorus. This type has a smooth rind do not have nets. The shape is rounded to oval. Fruit skin color yellow to pale greenish yellow. No flesh color green, orange to white. Meat flavorful fruit.

Cantalupensis. This species has a bumpy rind like pumpkin. Fruit flesh is yellow or orange, it smelled very strong. Cantaloupe is included in this type.

How to Grow Melons

Melon plant nursery

Melon crops for cultivation usually generative propagated from seed or seed. For the cultivation of one hectare required melon plant seeds around 16.000- 20.000 trees, equivalent to 500-700 grams of melon seeds.

Before planting the seeds should germinate in advance. You do this by soaking the seeds in warm water for 6-8 hours. If the seed is not containing fungicides, fungicides can be added to the soaking water as prescribed.

Once drained and soaked seeds sown on a damp cloth or newspaper that has been dampened. Let stand for 1-2 days until the seeds germinate. Keep the humidity of the cloth or newspaper. When you look dry splash water.

Then prepare a small polybag or nursery trays. Fill the planting medium is a mixture of soil with compost or manure in the ratio 2: 1, see how to create a media hotbed. Immerse melon seeds 1-2 cm deep into the planting medium.

Nursery should be protected by a clear plastic roof or hood. This is necessary so that the seedlings were grown protected from excessive sun and rain water running directly. Media seedbed should continue to be controlled and taken to ensure that the humidity up. Watering it regularly but not too wet.

Seeding process typically takes up to 10-14 days. Or marked by the growth of 2-3 leaves. In this phase, the seeds are ready to be moved to the planting site.

Land preparation and planting

The land for the cultivation of melons should be plowed first to smooth chunk of land. Then the form of beds with a width of 100-120 cm, height 30-50 cm, length of 10-15 meters and the distance between beds 50-60 cm.

After that provide basic fertilizers such as compost or manure as much as 15-20 tonnes / hectare. Add also ZA, KCl and SP-36 each 375 kg, 375 kg and 250 kg per hectare. Mix the fertilizer over the beds and mix well with the soil bed. Let the land for 2-4 days.

When the pH of the soil that will be used for melon cultivation is less than 5, give dolomite or lime farm as much as 2 tons per hectare. Combine with seedbed soil at least 2-3 days before basic fertilization.

Furthermore closed beds with black plastic mulch silver. Ground black face and silver color to the exterior. Make the planting hole at the top of the mulch. In each of the beds there are two rows of the planting hole with a line spacing of 60 cm and the distance between holes in a row 50-60 cm. Closure of mulch should be a minimum of 2 days prior to planting.

The next step is planting the seeds that have been prepared. One seed for each planting hole. Then flush to in order not to wither because of drought. Planting should be done in the afternoon when the sun is not too hot.
Care melon cultivation

a. Installation cantilever

To produce good fruit, the plant must be supported with a stick of bamboo. Functions that fruit produced is not in contact with the soil surface. In addition, to enable the penetration of sunlight to all parts of the plant.

Marker installation should be done before the plants grow big. Usually before the age of 3 days since the plant was first cultivated. This meant that the stakes are plugged in not injuring the plant roots.

Prepare marker over 1.5 meters. Plug the marker in the planting hole is oblique, upper end leaning towards the bed. So that the marker-marker intersect, forming the letter X. Then prepare bamboo longer and place it horizontally between cruciferous the marker-marker, tied with raffia.

b. Sprinkling

Regular watering is needed in the cultivation of melons. Watering should be done every evening until the age of plants one week. Further watering is done every two days.
When the rainy season drainage must function properly. Do not let the waterlogged soil. Melon plants do not require soil that is too wet.

c. Fertilization aftershocks

Supplementary fertilization takes from one week old plants. Fertilizer applied should be liquid. Solid manure can be dissolved in advance. Fertilizer which can be used organic liquid fertilizer or artificial chemical fertilizers.

Supplementary fertilizer with artificial chemical fertilizers are given as much as 6 times. Fertilizer dissolved in water and then applied to plants. Fertilization dose 200-250 ml / plant. The following table fertilizer requirements for the cultivation of melon:


How to Grow Melons

d. Artificial pollination

In the dry season pollination is done by insect pollinators. However, during the rainy season usually reduced intensity of insect pollinators. To get a good quality do artificial pollination.

Artificial pollination is done in the morning, before lunch at 10. If too was somewhat wilted flower buds or closed. Perform artificial pollination of female flowers, especially flowers that are on the branch to the 9th to the 13th. In one tree can be grown at least 3-4 candidates fruit.

Then selected again, so that the fruits are kept until the harvest is 1-2 per tree, depending on the size of the fruit. When large fruit size, just one per tree.

e. Pests and diseases

Melon cultivation in tropical areas such as Indonesia is vulnerable to pests and diseases. Pests that attack melon cultivation include aphids, fruit flies, caterpillars, thrips, mites. While the disease that attacks include anthracnose, fruit rot, stem rot and mosaic.

To avoid pests and diseases do technical culture such as crop rotation, balanced fertilization and keep the garden sanitation. When pests and diseases have attacked a suitable spray with pesticides. Can organic pesticides or synthetic pesticides. Spray according to the recommended dosage.

Harvesting

Usually melon cultivation ready for harvest after 3 months old. The characteristics of melon ready to harvest for reticalatus among other types of fiber mesh on the surface of the skin looking clear and rough, the surface of the skin around the stem looks cracked, yellowish green color and has issued a fragrance.

Melon fruit should be picked in the maturity level of 90% or about 3-7 days before fully ripe. It is useful to give more time to the distribution.

Picking is done by cutting the fruit stalk with a knife or scissors. Stalks are cut like the letter T, so the section cut is the lead on the leaves rather than fruit. Harvesting preferably in the morning at around 8-11 and done gradually. Choose fruit that is really ready to be harvested.

How to Grow Watermelon

Watermelon is one of the fruits that are quite easy to Cultivated. Why is that? Since it is very easy to grow in the plains of land that has a height 0-1000 m asl. So for Watermelon Cultivation can be done in lowland and highland.

Watermelon in addition to easy cultivation is also one of the alternative you are looking for additional income which is very promising. Because many like this one fruit, the more market demand soared. And it is an opportunity that can be used to increase revenue earlier. There is a story that originally Growing Watermelon as a sideline, but because the results are fairly basic at the left end job and focus on this business.

1. Selection of Land

Good soil for maximum results, should contain soil acidity pH 5.5 to 6.5 although this plant can be grown in peat though. Most importantly also the soil is fertile and rich in organic matter. Then clean and plow (can be with hoe), then create a raised bed with a length of 12-15 m, width of 1.5-2 m, continue to make the planting hole the size of 40x40x30 cm with a distance of 1-1.5 m. Put the basic fertilizer into the planting hole in them:
<>  4 kg of manure
<>  28 grams of fertilizer DS
<>  22 grams of fertilizer ZK
<>  15 grams ZA

2. Breeding

Prior to planting the seeds of course we prepare seed seeding of course. The trick germinating seeds in plastic pots or polybags with planting medium soil and manure. penyemaiannya should be slightly apart so that facilitate the growth of their own seeds previously soaked in 1 liter of water in the mix 1 tablespoon of the hormone (Atronik, Menedael, Abitonik), 1 tablespoon Feres fungicide (anti-fungal), 0.5 teaspoon pressed bactericidal for 20-30 minutes.

3. Planting

After the plants have leaves 2 pieces or 4 weeks old, then the seeds are ready for planting in the land already prepared above using monoculture. But one week before planting did land perforation within 20-30 cm from the edge to a depth of 8-10 cm, then flood the water until it is full and let it sink in. In addition it should also be done in order to facilitate the release polybag soaking for 5-10 minutes and interfere in the marinade for immunization drugs seedlings.
water melon

4. Maintenance of Plant

There are several stages of general maintenance is given, among others:
Watering the newly planted crops in the land is very important, when watering through the channels of the beds, the water must be taken not to overflow flooded seedbed surface.

Weeding is done on watermelon plants must be careful, lest the primary and secondary stem is cut or damaged. The weeding process can be carried out between 3-4 times during the growing season.

Pembubunan ie membubun the ground so that the roots absorb food maximally and followed with perempelan process, namely the process of sorting young shoots to be disposed of are useless and will inhibit the growth of watermelon plant.

Thinning and replanting the watermelon crop is done after the age of 3-5 days, when the late crop growth and will lead to the death of the plant then immediately replace it with new seedlings. And do thinning with 2-3 leaves of plants alone.

Fertilization can be given fertilizer P and K as well as the third part of fertilizer N is applied to the base fertilizer. P and K fertilizer mixture inserted into the planting hole as deep as 5-8 cm and 5-8 cm from seed so far. If you use fertilizer DS and ZK, then each hole is given only 28 grams and 22 grams of fertilizer DS ZK fertilizer. Diberika first fertilizer application during the crop was planted, a second application of fertilizer given to plants already as high as 1 m, while the third fertilizer application after the crop has been fruitful of chicken eggs.

5. Harvesting

Prior to describe the process of harvesting, you should consider conception. Recommended at each branch maintained only 1 piece only, so the tree will produce fruit 3-4. Why? In order for the growth of the fruit can be maximized. Then when it's grown fruit buds then immediately make the base of the dry straw to avoid splashing rain can cause rot.

For their harvest process itself usually farmers have their own way. In what sense can be harvested when it is up to the farmers themselves. If it is already achieving decent size harvest the crop immediately. But usually he harvests the crop standard one hectare yield of 8-10 tons.

How to Easily Grow Shallots

Red onion (Allium ascalonicum) is a seasonal horticultural crops that have high economic value. But at certain moments are often flooded production so the price plummeted. Exacerbated by the government's import policies applied are often exacerbate the fall of onion prices in the market.

To avoid price fluctuations very detrimental to farmers, should attempt to do the onion cultivation outside of the season. Along with restrictions on farming activities in the peak seasons.

Onion cultivation requires sun shines more than 12 hours a day. This plant is suitable to be cultivated in the lowlands with a height of 0 to 900 meters above sea level. The optimum temperature for development of onion plants ranges from 25-32 degrees Celsius. While the desired acidity of the soil around pH 5.6 to 7.

This time alamtani trying to decipher the technical steps that need to be prepared to undertake the cultivation of onion. How to grow onions is extracted from the experience of the onion farmers in Bradford, Central Java. Berebes is one of the largest centers of onion cultivation in Indonesia.
How to Easily Grow Shallots

Onion Seeds

Seed varieties for cultivation of onion pretty much. There are local to seed imported hybrid seeds. There is a form of seed from the seed, there is also a form of tubers. Most onion cultivation in production centers use as seed tubers.

Good onion seeds harvested tubers derived from the old, more than 80 days to 100 days in the lowlands and highlands. Good onion seeds have saved at least 2-3 months. Seed size approximately 1.5-2 cm with a nice shape, no defects, shiny dark red.

The need for the cultivation of onion seed werah depending on the variety, size and spacing of seeds. For a spacing of 20 × 20 with a weight of 5 grams tuber takes about 1.4 tons of seed per hectare. For the same weight with a spacing of 15 × 15 takes 2.4 tons per hectare. When the weight of the smaller bulbs, tubers per hectare needs even less.

Tillage and planting

Land made beds with a width of 1-1.2 meters, height of 20-30 cm and length sesusai with garden conditions. The distance between beds of 50 cm, as well as serve 50 cm deep trench. Hoe beds as deep as 20 cm, made of loose soil. The shape of the surface or the top of the embankment flat, not curved.

Add lime or dolomite as much as 1-1.5 tonnes per hectare when the acidity of less than pH 5.6. The addition of lime at least be given two weeks before planting.

Use 15-20 compost or manure as fertilizer base. Sprinkle the fertilizer on the beds and stir until evenly ground. Can also be added urea, ZA, SP-36 and KCL by 47 kg, 100 kg, 311 kg and 56 kg per hectare. Mixed fertilizers before applied. Let stand for one week before planting beds.

Prepare seeds or onion bulbs are ready for planting. If the age of the tubers was less than 2 months, do pemogesan first. Pemogesan is cutting the end of the tuber, about 0.5 cm. Its function is to break the dormancy period and accelerate the growth of plants.

Spacing for onion cultivation in the dry season is compacted to 15 × 15 cm. While the rainy season at least made up to 20 × 20 cm. Onion seeds were planted in a way to immerse all parts bulbs into the ground.

Care onion cultivation

Watering in onion cultivation should be done twice a day every morning and afternoon. At least until the 10-day-old plants. After that, the frequency of watering can be reduced to once a day.

Supplementary fertilization is given after onion plants 2 weeks old. Type consists of a mixture of urea fertilizer, ZA, and KCl mix evenly. The composition of each fertilizer as much as 93 kg, 200 kg and 112 kg per hectare. Fertilization subsequent aftershocks given on week 5 with the composition of urea, ZA, KCl as much as 47 kg, 100 kg, 56 kg per hectare.

Fertilization is given to make the kerf in addition to the plant.
Weeding is usually done twice in one growing season. To save money, do weeding in conjunction with the provision of supplementary fertilizer. However, if the weed attacks intensified, weeding done immediately without waiting for the provision of supplementary fertilizer.

Pest and disease control

Onion cultivation has many types of pests and diseases. However, the most frequently attacked in the production centers are pest caterpillars and wilt.

Pests caterpillar (Spodoptera sp.) Attack the leaves, the symptoms are visible white spots on the leaves. When the leaves in binoculars to look like a caterpillar bites. These pests dealt with manual collection, caterpillars and eggs are taken to be destroyed. Can also use the sex pheromone traps, use as many as 40 units per hectare. When the attacks intensified, more than 5% damage per clump of leaves, spray with insecticidal active ingredient klorfirifos.

Fusarium wilt, caused by the fungus. The symptoms such as leaf yellowing and twisted. The base of the stem rot. Handling by depriving plants die then burn it. Spraying can use fungsidia.

Harvest onion cultivation

The characteristics of onion cultivation 60-70% ready to harvest when the leaves have started to fall. Or, do random checks bulbs. Especially for seeding bulbs, the level of lodging must achieve more than 90%.

Onion cultivation usually can be harvested after 55-70 days after planting. Productivity onion dangat vary depending on soil conditions, climate, weather and varieties. In Indonesia, the productivity of onion cultivation ranges from 3-12 tons per hectare with a national average of 9.47 tons per hectare.

Onion bulbs that have been harvested must be dried first. Drying drying can take up to 7-14 days. The reversal was done every 2-3 days. Onions are dry, moisture content 85%, ready to be stored or sold.

How to grow tomatoes in a polybag

Tomatoes are classified as vegetables, although having the structure fruit. This plant can grow well in lowland and high ranging from 0-1500 meters above sea level, depending on the variety. Tomato plants require soil that is fertile and loose, with a pH of about 5.5 to 7.

In the wild tomato shaped like a clump of trees, their height can reach a height of 3 meters. But after a cultivated plant height is not more than 2 meters and are usually supported by stakes or rope to hold against buckling.

Tomato plants can grow well in a variety of media such as open land, hydroponics, and media vertikultur garden pots or polybags. On this occasion we will elaborate on how to grow tomatoes in a polybag. If you want to know the large-scale cultivation of tomatoes in open field tomato cultivation read a general guide.

The selection of plants

In general, people distinguish tomatoes of fruit shape. There are four classes of tomatoes that many in the market namely, (1) Tomato fruit or granola tomatoes, rounded shape with a flat base (2) Tomato gondol, oval shape is used as a raw material sauce, (3) Tomato vegetable, it feels a little hard teskturnya wry, (4) cherry tomatoes, a small sweet sour. 

How to grow tomatoes in a polybag not difficult. The first step select the type of tomato and varieties will be planted. Adjust the location where the cultivation of tomato varieties will be selected, especially for climatic conditions and altitude.

For maximum results, use improved seed from a trusted source. Tomato seeds of various varieties can be found in farm shops. Information about the properties of plants can be found on a label on the seed package.

How to grow tomatoes in a polybag

Seeding Tomatoes

How to grow tomatoes in a polybag nursery should go through the stage first. Seed must be sown in seed into plant seeds. This step is necessary because the seed which grows require different treatments with plants that have grown large.

Prepare a seedbed and the media in advance. Select a seedbed that is protected from rain and direct sunlight. Media seedbed can vary, please read how to make media for horticultural nursery.

The shape can be a seedbed nursery, nursery shelves, or polybag seedlings.
For the nursery beds, create an array above the beds to a depth of 1 cm and 5 cm spacing between lines. Then planting tomato seeds in each array with a distance of 3 cm, closed surface and flush taste.

For nursery use ploybag, polybag with media contents nursery. If no one can use the polybag nursery bags of leaves (bekong). Then immerse tomato seeds 1 cm deep into the medium. Then cover the surface and flush taste. Each polybag quite filled one seed.

Once the seeds are planted, do the watering every 2 times a day with a soft hype. Be careful when watering, not to damage the surface of the nursery.

Additional fertilization can be given after two weeks with an organic liquid fertilizer, compost or NPK. Another treatment that should be done is weeding. Do not let weeds grow in the nursery area. Seedlings of tomato plants ready to be moved from a nursery into a polybag after 30 days or already have at least 5 leaves.

Transplanting Tomatoes

Before the seedlings are transferred, prepare the planting medium and polybag. Fill in the poly bag with soil, rice husk, and compost in the ratio 2: 1: 1. For more details see how to create a planting medium for a polybag.

There are two ways to grow tomatoes from a nursery into a polybag. First, remove the seeds with revoked. The trick, flush with water so that seedbed planting media become soft. Then remove the plants with care not to drop out or damaged plant roots. Then enter the plant is perpendicular to the planting hole is in the polybag. Roots should be upright position not to bent or folded. Adjust the depth of the planting hole according to the length of the roots.

Second, move the seedlings to be played. The trick tomato plants raised by the media that is around. For seeds of beds, pry plant 10 cm deep with a shovel or hand. Then lift and move along with the soil.

For seedlings in polybag nursery, tear or pull the plastic polybag nursery then moved along the ground into a bigger polybag. Polybag seedlings of plastic can be used repeatedly.

Maintenance and Care

Maintenance of tomato plants in a poly bag or pot is relatively easy. Plant health is more controlled as to avoid the spread of disease through the roots. Keep the planting medium is not too dry. Flush at least 2 times a day, but do not be too wet to avoid root rot.

Unplug weeds contained in polybags regularly. If there are plants that wilt or die, unplug immediately and dispose of media cropping so as not to infect other plants. Another treatment that is required is pruning shoots and giving a stake as the support of the plant.

Fertilizer plant after one week with compost as a handheld for each polybag. Perform the addition of compost every month, or if the plant looks less fertile. When the plants will bear fruit or fruit can be added fertilizer liquid organic fertilizer.

Pests and tomato plants peyakit quite a lot. When seen no pests, pest take manually. Discard damaged leaves or stems are exposed to pests. Spraying should be done when absolutely necessary. To be safe for health and the environment using a more natural organic pesticide. Please read how to make organic pesticides.

Harvesting

Tomato plants can be harvested in a poly bag after 3 months, depending on the variety. Criteria tomatoes ready for harvest is that changes color from green to yellow-brass or leaf edges look dry and yellow stem. Picking is done on mature fruit alone.

Tomato fruit is not ripe simultaneously. Do plucking every 2-3 days, do not be too tight to avoid crop damage. Picking the best time in the morning and afternoon, when the sun is not too hot. Similarly, a brief description of the quiet way to grow tomatoes in a polybag.