Red onion (Allium ascalonicum) is a seasonal horticultural crops that have high economic value. But at certain moments are often flooded production so the price plummeted. Exacerbated by the government's import policies applied are often exacerbate the fall of onion prices in the market.
To avoid price fluctuations very detrimental to farmers, should attempt to do the onion cultivation outside of the season. Along with restrictions on farming activities in the peak seasons.
Onion cultivation requires sun shines more than 12 hours a day. This plant is suitable to be cultivated in the lowlands with a height of 0 to 900 meters above sea level. The optimum temperature for development of onion plants ranges from 25-32 degrees Celsius. While the desired acidity of the soil around pH 5.6 to 7.
This time alamtani trying to decipher the technical steps that need to be prepared to undertake the cultivation of onion. How to grow onions is extracted from the experience of the onion farmers in Bradford, Central Java. Berebes is one of the largest centers of onion cultivation in Indonesia.
Seed varieties for cultivation of onion pretty much. There are local to seed imported hybrid seeds. There is a form of seed from the seed, there is also a form of tubers. Most onion cultivation in production centers use as seed tubers.
Good onion seeds harvested tubers derived from the old, more than 80 days to 100 days in the lowlands and highlands. Good onion seeds have saved at least 2-3 months. Seed size approximately 1.5-2 cm with a nice shape, no defects, shiny dark red.
The need for the cultivation of onion seed werah depending on the variety, size and spacing of seeds. For a spacing of 20 × 20 with a weight of 5 grams tuber takes about 1.4 tons of seed per hectare. For the same weight with a spacing of 15 × 15 takes 2.4 tons per hectare. When the weight of the smaller bulbs, tubers per hectare needs even less.
Tillage and planting
Land made beds with a width of 1-1.2 meters, height of 20-30 cm and length sesusai with garden conditions. The distance between beds of 50 cm, as well as serve 50 cm deep trench. Hoe beds as deep as 20 cm, made of loose soil. The shape of the surface or the top of the embankment flat, not curved.
Add lime or dolomite as much as 1-1.5 tonnes per hectare when the acidity of less than pH 5.6. The addition of lime at least be given two weeks before planting.
Use 15-20 compost or manure as fertilizer base. Sprinkle the fertilizer on the beds and stir until evenly ground. Can also be added urea, ZA, SP-36 and KCL by 47 kg, 100 kg, 311 kg and 56 kg per hectare. Mixed fertilizers before applied. Let stand for one week before planting beds.
Prepare seeds or onion bulbs are ready for planting. If the age of the tubers was less than 2 months, do pemogesan first. Pemogesan is cutting the end of the tuber, about 0.5 cm. Its function is to break the dormancy period and accelerate the growth of plants.
Spacing for onion cultivation in the dry season is compacted to 15 × 15 cm. While the rainy season at least made up to 20 × 20 cm. Onion seeds were planted in a way to immerse all parts bulbs into the ground.
Care onion cultivation
Watering in onion cultivation should be done twice a day every morning and afternoon. At least until the 10-day-old plants. After that, the frequency of watering can be reduced to once a day.
Supplementary fertilization is given after onion plants 2 weeks old. Type consists of a mixture of urea fertilizer, ZA, and KCl mix evenly. The composition of each fertilizer as much as 93 kg, 200 kg and 112 kg per hectare. Fertilization subsequent aftershocks given on week 5 with the composition of urea, ZA, KCl as much as 47 kg, 100 kg, 56 kg per hectare.
Fertilization is given to make the kerf in addition to the plant.
Weeding is usually done twice in one growing season. To save money, do weeding in conjunction with the provision of supplementary fertilizer. However, if the weed attacks intensified, weeding done immediately without waiting for the provision of supplementary fertilizer.
Pest and disease control
Onion cultivation has many types of pests and diseases. However, the most frequently attacked in the production centers are pest caterpillars and wilt.
Pests caterpillar (Spodoptera sp.) Attack the leaves, the symptoms are visible white spots on the leaves. When the leaves in binoculars to look like a caterpillar bites. These pests dealt with manual collection, caterpillars and eggs are taken to be destroyed. Can also use the sex pheromone traps, use as many as 40 units per hectare. When the attacks intensified, more than 5% damage per clump of leaves, spray with insecticidal active ingredient klorfirifos.
Fusarium wilt, caused by the fungus. The symptoms such as leaf yellowing and twisted. The base of the stem rot. Handling by depriving plants die then burn it. Spraying can use fungsidia.
Harvest onion cultivation
The characteristics of onion cultivation 60-70% ready to harvest when the leaves have started to fall. Or, do random checks bulbs. Especially for seeding bulbs, the level of lodging must achieve more than 90%.
Onion cultivation usually can be harvested after 55-70 days after planting. Productivity onion dangat vary depending on soil conditions, climate, weather and varieties. In Indonesia, the productivity of onion cultivation ranges from 3-12 tons per hectare with a national average of 9.47 tons per hectare.
Onion bulbs that have been harvested must be dried first. Drying drying can take up to 7-14 days. The reversal was done every 2-3 days. Onions are dry, moisture content 85%, ready to be stored or sold.