Papaya (Carica papaya) is a tropical fruit. This plant is believed to come from tropical regions of the Americas. From this place spread to various parts of the world.
Papaya cultivation can be done in the lowlands up to an altitude of 1000 meters above sea level. However, optimal land elevation range 50-700 meters above sea level. This plant requires about 1000-2000 mm rainfall per year are evenly throughout the year. In the area of seasonal dried papaya tree can still be fruitful with the help of regular watering.
Selection of papaya seeds
Seeds for cultivation of papaya obtained from selected seeds. To get as many perfect papaya trees required accuracy and skill in selecting candidates for seed.
Good seed obtained from papaya fruit produced perfect tree. Elongated fruit shape, no defects and free from disease. The fruit as much as possible left to ripen on the tree.
Papaya seeds contained in the fruit cavity, there are black and white pale dark there. White seeds are seeds that death will not grow. Black seeds that can grow into a tree, but only about 25-50% being perfect tree depending on the nature of genetics.
The rest becomes a tree female and male trees.
Seeds that grow at the end of the fruit has the possibility to grow into a perfect papaya tree compared to the base. To select seed should take the seeds at the end to the middle of the fruit. Do not take the seeds from the fruit base.
Sowing the seeds of papaya
Before seeded, dry seeds still need to germinate first. It is useful to shorten the time of papaya cultivation. First soak the seeds in warm water for one night. Then select the seeds sink or float in water.
Prepare tissue paper for packaging, wet wipes with water. Sprinkle seeds soaked on paper towels then cover it with a tissue and flush or wet. Enter the seed package in baskets (woven bamboo box) or other similar container. Place the container must be impermeable to water or drain water.
Put the container in the sun, not too hot, seed germination requires a temperature of about 30 degrees Celsius. The seeds will germinate after 7-10 days, or could be.
Once the seeds germinate into seedlings, seedling-sprouts move is in the polybag nursery, the seed of the polybag. Choose a small polybag with size 9 × 10 cm. Previously, the contents of the polybag nursery media consisting of soil, compost, rice husk which has been sifted with a ratio of 1: 1: 1. See how to create a media hotbed.
Once the seedlings are transferred wet the media to keep the humidity. Then place the poly-poly bags in a shaded nursery chamber. Shade can be made of clear plastic or paranet. Its function is to protect the seedlings from the disbursement of direct rain, sun and wind.
Seedlings ready to be moved to land openly after the age of 2-2.5 months since planted. Papaya seed requirement for one hectare of about 60 grams.
Tillage and planting
Here is a land management for papaya cultivation in dry land or a stretch of non terracing. First, dug or plowed land to loosen the soil. Then create a raised bed with a width of 2 meters, the length adjusting landforms and 20-30 cm high. The distance between beds width 50 cm. Spacing should be adapted to the cultivation of papaya acreage. The following provisions:
- Papaya cultivation <0.2 ha planted distance 2 × 2 meters
- Papaya cultivation 1-5 ha planted distance 2 × 2.5 meters
- Cultivation of papaya> 1 ha planting distance of 3 × 3 meters
Make the planting hole in accordance with spacing, size 50x50x40 cm planting hole. We recommend making holes for planting is not in the rainy season. When digging the planting hole, remove the top soil with soil at the bottom. Leave the hole open for 1-2 weeks.
Then mix the basic fertilizer in the form of compost or manure that has been cooked with topsoil. Dose of 20 kg of fertilizer per planting hole. Then enter the first ground into the bottom of the planting hole, then enter the upper soil. Let re planting hole is closed for 1-2 weeks.
For the record, to soil that has a pH below 5 neutralize with lime or dolomite. Lime doses of 1-2 tons per hectare or 1 kg per planting hole. Giving dolomite at least 2 weeks prior to planting.
After the planting hole is ready, remove the seeds from the polybag nursery to the planting hole. Seedlings are ready to be moved a minimum of 2-2.5 months after sowing. Do watering in the morning or late afternoon until at least 1.5 months old plants were transferred.
There are two habits of farmers in the cultivation of papaya, which is planting a seed in the planting hole or two seeds per hole seedling. The purpose of planting two papaya seeds to avoid the growth of male and female as well as facilitate stitching.
In the 4th, when the first flowering papaya, papaya be selected to revoke unwanted. In the end only one perfect papaya per planting hole that is allowed to grow to fruition.
Papaya cultivation treatments
Stitching plants do after the plant was 1.5 months after planting. Plants that grow ugly or diseased repealed and replaced new seedlings. When using two seeds in the planting hole, simply unplug the plants that look good.
Here are tips that are given to Prof. Sobir of Tropical Fruit Research Center, Bogor Agricultural University, to selecting the perfect papaya plants.
Observe when flowering tree for the first time. Flowers grow in axillary panicles. If a single flower growing, means perfect female flowers or flower. This flower out at the age of 4 months. When a group or in a series of mean male, trees should be removed and embroidered with other seeds.
Pick flowers and press edges with thumb up open, when the male flowers out means this tree is perfect tree to be retained. Perfect flower will appear 1-2 months later.
If after pressed out female flowers, means this tree female tree. Means should be repealed.
Then the plants were removed embroidered with new seedlings. Or, if we apply the method of planting two trees in the planting hole, move the perfect tree from another hole. Due to the hole can only be raised one perfect tree.
Fertilization aftershocks started 2 weeks after the seedlings are transferred. Fertilization is given by digging a trench encircling the papaya plant. Trench depth of approximately 5-10 cm, fertilizer mixture is placed in the trench. The following provisions papaya cultivation fertilization:
- The first fertilization, the age of 2 weeks, Urea 30 gr, 40 gr SP-36, ZA 40 g and 20 g per tree KCl
- Fertilization second, the age of 1 month, Urea 40 gr, 70 gr SP-36, ZA 70 g and 30 g per tree KCl
- Third Fertilization, age 4 months, Urea 45 gr, 80 gr SP-36, ZA 80 grams and 60 grams of KCl per tree
- Fertilization fourth, aged 6 months, Urea 50 gr, 90 gr SP-36, ZA 90 g and 70 g per tree KCl
- Fertilization subsequently every single month, Urea 60 g, SP-36 100 g, 100 g and KCl ZA 75 g per tree
Papaya cultivation can usually be harvested after 9-14 months old. The frequency of the harvest can be done every 10 days. Papaya cultivation productivity ranged between 20-35 tons per hectare. Productivity depends on climatic conditions, varieties and cultivation techniques.
Papaya fruit plucked should approach the mature stage of the tree. Characteristics are yellow lines on the skin of the fruit. When the harvest will be sold to distant places, can be picked early.