Eggplant (Solanum melongena) is a type of annual seasonal vegetables. Besides India, Indonesia is believed to be the origin of eggplant. These plants are often found growing wild in our forests. However, the current widespread eggplant is grown in various parts of the earth.
There are many varieties of eggplant grown in Indonesia, ranging from local eggplant Wren like eggplant, eggplant kopek, Bogor eggplant, eggplant eggplant field to import as Japanese eggplant. The shape and color of eggplant fruit there are quite a variety of white, green to purple. The form was some round, oval large, up to oval with a pointed tip.
Soil conditions are ideal for the cultivation of eggplant is sandy loam soil with a pH range of 6.5-7. Eggplant yet fully operational in the temperature range 22-30oC. These plants require adequate sunlight, therefore suitable to be planted in the dry season.
Eggplant is one family with chillies, tomatoes and potatoes. Pests and diseases that attack these plants can also interfere with the cultivation of eggplant. Therefore, in the crop rotation, try not to these plants.
Good seed for cultivation of eggplant have the ability to grow at over 75%. With such seed, seed requirements for one hectare reach 300-500 grams. Before planting in open fields, eggplant seeds should be sown in advance.
The first step is to prepare first place seeding. Make beds with a width of one meter and a height of 20 cm. The pile is made from a mixture of soil, rice husk and compost in the ratio 1: 1: 1. Alternatively, please read how to create a media hotbed. Then give shade to the beds.
Soak eggplant seeds in warm water for 10-15 minutes, then cover the seed with a damp cloth and let stand for 24 hours. Create a groove within 5-10 cm above the seedbed for sowing seed.
Then scatter the seeds and cover with a thin layer of soil. After that, cover the beds with banana leaves or wet burlap sacks. Flush with water to keep the seedbed moisture.
After 2-3 days the sprouts begin to grow into a plant, or banana leaves open the burlap sack. Then flush the plant every day. After 10-15 days, move the plant seeds into bumbunan banana leaves or small polybag (9X10 cm), one polybag one plant.
Fill bumbunan polybag or banana leaf with soil and compost, a ratio of 1: 1. Please read how to make a planting medium polybag.
Water the plants present in the poly bag every day. After 1-1.5 months old plants or have had at least 4 leaves, the plant is ready to be moved into the open field.
Tillage and planting
The land for the cultivation of eggplant dug or plowed to a depth of 30 cm. Clean soil of weeds and gravel. Form of beds with a width of 1 meter height of 30 cm and a length adapted to the shape of the land. The distance between beds of 40 cm.
Use organic fertilizer as basal fertilizer, can be compost or manure as much as 15 tons per hectare. Sprinkle over the beds and mix well. Eggplant cultivation requires soil acidity level of about pH 5-6. If the pH is less than 5 add agricultural lime or dolomite of 1-2 tons per hectare one week before planting.
Make the planting hole is lined up, one as much as two rows of beds. Spacing between the planting hole 60 cm and the distance between rows 70 cm. Hole width and depth adjustable to the size polybag seedlings.
Before the seedlings are transferred, flush with water beds. Eggplant plants tend not stand the drought. Move the plant seeds one hole filled the seed crop. Be careful in moving the plants, keeping the roots are not broken or damaged tanamah.
Eggplant cultivation treatments
Do replanting crops after one week. Unplug the plants that look wilted or unhealthy and abnormal growth. Revocation is done along with the growth media. Replace with new seedlings.
Additional fertilization is done starting from 2 weeks after the seeds are planted. For the cultivation of non-organic eggplant provide urea at a dose of 80 kg / ha and KCl 45 kg / ha. As for the cultivation of organic eggplant provide compost or manure, each one lump or approximately 0.5 kg per plant.
Repeat administration of supplementary fertilizer in week 5 and 7th after the seeds are planted. While providing supplementary fertilizer, weed siangi contained in the plant beds. Clean the shrubs that are around the area of the plant.
Marker installation or bamboo slats to support the plant is done after 3 weeks old plants. Embedding marker should be within 5-7 cm from the base of the stem. Do not get hurt marker embedding plant roots. Tie the plant at stake with raffia.
If it does not rain watering should be done every three days until flowering plants. After flowering plants, increase the frequency to every other day.
Harvest eggplant cultivation
The first harvest eggplant cultivation is usually carried out after 70-80 days from seed is planted. Furthermore, harvesting is done every 3-7 days. In a single growing season, harvest bia reach 13-15 times, or even more.
The right time to harvest is early morning and late afternoon. Fruit picked with stalks, eggplant fruit is not durable. Therefore, it should be marketed immediately after harvest. Sorting for the cultivation of eggplant is done based on the size and color of the fruit.